Proposed rulemaking by DEA will bring its regulations governing forfeitures in line with the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) recently published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding the consolidation of seizure and forfeiture regulations in the Department of Justice which will harmonize the regulations of the DEA, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms (ATF) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) pertaining to the seizure and forfeiture of assets and bring those procedures for seizure and forfeiture under one regulation. That notice of proposed rulemaking can be found here. Generally, assets may be seized and forfeited to the government if they were used in violation of a law providing for forfeiture, are contraband, violate a regulatory statute, or are connected in some way to the laundering of monetary proceeds of a specified unlawful activity.
In 2000, Congress passed the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act (CAFRA) which amended the forfeiture laws regarding seizures and forfeitures involving federal agencies, except for violations of the Customs laws, certain laws involving embargos, IRS laws or seizures for violations of the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act. CAFRA was passed in response to stories of abuse regarding the seizures and forfeitures of assets without adequate due process protections for individuals who could not afford counsel or the bond often required to challenge government forfeitures.
For example, prior to CAFRA, there were no fixed time limits regarding when notice letters had to be sent by the agency informing an owner that his or her goods had been seized for forfeiture and no remedies to the owner for goods being held an inordinate amount of time. Likewise, there was no fixed deadline governing when a forfeiture proceeding had to be commenced after notice had been sent to the owner. Additionally, persons claiming seized goods had to post a bond, sometimes in the thousands of dollars, just for the right to contest the forfeiture. In cases where the owner of seized property could not afford a lawyer, he or she had to represent his or her self. In all cases, the agency only had to show probable cause that the goods were forfeitable, the owner had the burden of proof to show why the goods should not go to the agency. Innocence or lack of knowledge of a violation of the law was not necessarily a defense.
Now, under CAFRA, forfeiture notices must generally be sent within 60 days of seizure;, and if the notice is not sent the agency must return the property. If an owner files a claim for the property, a complaint for forfeiture in court must be filed within 90 days, the owner no longer needs to post a bond, and if the forfeiture is of a primary residence, and the owner does not have the funds for a lawyer, the court must appoint a lawyer. Furthermore, the government now has the burden to prove by the greater weight of the evidence that the goods are forfeitable under the law, and an owner now can assert innocence or lack of knowledge of the violation claimed by the agency as a defense to forfeiture, and an owner can obtain an attorneys fees award against the agency if he or she prevails in a forfeiture action in court.
The proposed rulemaking by the DEA seeks to harmonize its regulations with these CAFRA requirements and consolidate its rules and procedures with those of other Department of Justice agencies. These proposed, consolidated regulations will apply to all seizures and forfeitures commenced by any agency of the Department of Justice except those specifically excluded by CAFRA. The proposed regulations will make express in the rules of the Department of Justice the enhanced due process protections provided by CAFRA to owners and others with interests in property.
When faced with the deprivation of property by a federal agency, it is important to obtain counsel in order to ensure that the government complies with the enhanced due process protections of CAFRA. At Fuerst Ittleman, we will monitor the proposed rulemaking and will blog when the final rules are promulgated.