Seventh Circuit Finds State Consumer Protection Claim Preempted by Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
On October 17, 2011, the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed a district court ruling dismissing a state law consumer fraud claim, finding that it was preempted by the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C). The suit alleged that General Mills, Inc. and Kellogg Co. failed to disclose pertinent information concerning their “Fiber Plus” chewy bars.
In the district court case, the Plaintiff claimed that while the labeling of the product declared fiber to be 35% of the daily recommended value, this information was misleading to consumers. Because the fiber found in the product was allegedly a “non-natural,” processed fiber, providing fewer benefits than consumption of natural fiber, the Plaintiff argued that the manufacturers of Fiber Plus should have declared the origins of this fiber in labeling.
Found here, the Seventh Circuit’s Opinion discusses how state law labeling requirements may not exceed those found in the FD&C. In particular, 21 U.S.C. § 343-1(a)(5) provides that no state may establish “any requirement respecting any claim of the type described in section 403(r)(1) made in the label or labeling of food that is not identical to the requirement of section 403(r). . . .” 21 U.S.C. § 403(r) gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to regulate nutrition labeling and related claims for food products. Taken together, these provisions prevent states from imposing and enforcing requirements that are additional to or different from those set forth by the FDA. In this case, 21 C.F.R. § 101.54(d), the FDA regulation pertaining to nutrient content claims for food, provides the requirements that manufacturers must comply with when making “fiber claims.” Reasoning that the regulation does not require a declaration of the origins of fiber in food labeling, the Seventh Circuit ultimately found the plaintiff’s state law claim preempted.
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